American Kennel Club: Glossary

American Kennel Club
The American Kennel Club, a not-for-profit organization established in 1884, maintains a purebred dog registry, sanctions dog events, and promotes responsible dog ownership. The AKC records the parentage of over 1 million dogs and sponsors more than 15,000 dog events annually. The core value of AKC is to promote and support the human/canine bond.

Breed
A domestic race of dogs (selected and maintained by humans) with a common gene pool and a characterized appearance and function.

Breeder
A person who breeds dogs. Under AKC rules, the breeder is the owner, or the lessee, of the dam on the date of a mating that results in a litter.

Breeding Stock
Any animal used for breeding.

Certificate Issue Date
The date AKC issued the Registration Certificate. This is found near the American Kennel Club seal on the certificate.

Dam
The female parent of a dog.

Dam Owner: The person who, according to AKC records, is the registered owner of the dam.

Dam Name: The unique name given to the dam during AKC dog registration.

Dam Registration Number: The unique number assigned to a dog when it is individually registered with AKC.

DNA
DNA technology allows breeders, dog owners, and the AKC to ensure that the AKC Registry is the most accurate in the world. Please visit http://www.akc.org/dna/ to learn more about DNA and AKC DNA programs.

DNA Certification Program: A cheek swab brush is used to collect the DNA sample from the dog, and returned to the AKC. The AKC's DNA service provider, MMI Genomics, processes the sample and the resulting genotype is entered into the AKC DNA database. The information is used for genetic identity purposes and to verify parentage of AKC dogs. Responsible breeders obtain DNA certification for their breeding stock in order to validate the pedigree.

DNA Profile Number: This number is assigned by AKC when the DNA sample is recorded it the AKC DNA database and uniquely ties the dog to a DNA genotype, which can be used for genetic identity and parentage verification purposes.

DNA Parentage Certificate: Offered by AKC's DNA Operations Department, the Certificate displays the DNA genotypes on file for an AKC-Registered purebred dog and his sire (father) and dam (mother), and indicates that his parentage has been verified.

DNA Parentage Evaluation Service: AKC DNA Operations staff will evaluate parentage for you and provide you with an easy to read Parentage Evaluation Table and written report.

Dog
A male dog; also used collectively to designate both male and female.

Health Screens
Responsible breeders conduct the applicable health screenings on their breeding stock and offer health guarantees for their puppies. Please visit the Parent Club Web site ( https://www.apps.akc.org//apps/clubs/search/index.cfm?action=national&display=on) of the breed you are interested in to learn more about the additional health screenings recommended for your breed.

OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals): Organization, established in 1966, that developed and maintains a database of hip dysplasia in dogs. OFA has expanded their database to include elbow and eye evaluations.

Hips: Dogs with OFA numbers are rated and certified free of canine hip dysplasia. OFA Certification rates hips as Excellent (E), Good (G), or Fair (F). A grade may be absent if the dog passed but the grade is unavailable or unpublished. To interpret the rating, OFA24E indicates the dog was 24 months of age when certified by the OFA and the hips were graded as Excellent.

Elbows: Elbows are not assigned a level of quality; they are simply graded as pass/fail. To interpret the rating, OFEL37 indicates the dog was 37 months of age when certified by the OFA and the elbows passed.

Eyes: Eyes are not assigned a level of quality; they are simply graded as normal/abnormal. To interpret the rating, EYE37 indicates the dog was 37 months of age when examined and the eyes were considered normal.

CHIC (Canine Health Information Center): CHIC is a resource for breeders and others interested in the health of purebred dogs. Participating breed clubs determine what is considered a minimum standard for health testing for their breed. Any dog that undergoes all the required testing will be listed in the CHIC database, regardless of the test results.

Litter
The puppy or puppies resulting from a mating.

Litter Registration: In order for a litter to be eligible for registration, the sire (father/stud dog) and the dam (mother/bitch) must be individually AKC registered and the litter must be whelped in the United States. Registration of the litter must be completed before any of the pups from the litter can be individually registered with AKC.

Litter Date of Birth: The date the litter was born. (Also known as the Whelp Date.)

Pedigree
The written record of a dog's genealogy of three generations or more.

Purebred
A dog whose sire (father/stud dog) and dam (mother/bitch) belong to the same breed and who are of unmixed descent since recognition of the breed.

Permanent Identification
The American Kennel Club recommends permanent identification for dogs.

Microchip: A microchip is a rice-sized device encoded with a unique and unalterable identification number. A veterinarian inserts the microchip, which can be read by widely distributed handheld scanners, below the surface of the skin between the dog's shoulder blades. In the case of a displaced dog, the dog can be identified by its microchip and returned to its owner.

Tattoo: A tattoo is another form of permanent ID. Tattoo artists perform the procedure and pet owners typically choose the tattoo number.

AKC Reunite: AKC Reunite, an affiliate of the AKC and a 501c(3) not-for-profit organization, was founded in 1995 to help reunite lost pets with their owners. It provides 24-hour recovery services for microchipped and tattooed pets. The enrollment database maintains records from around the world and all microchipped and tattooed animals are eligible for enrollment. Visit http://www.akcreunite.org for more information about microchips, tattoos, and enrollment in a national recovery database.

Registration
Registration is the act of recording a dog's parentage with the AKC. When you register your purebred dog with the AKC, you will receive a Registration Certificate that is essentially a certificate of your dog's identity, providing recognition and official documentation of your dog's place in breed history. When you register your dog, you choose a unique name for your dog and you can request a pedigree that traces its parentage back three or four generations.

Dog Registration Application: If you are buying a dog that is supposed to be registrable with the AKC, it is your responsibility to obtain the individual Dog Registration Application from the breeder or you should not buy the dog. Failure to get AKC "registration papers" causes more grief for buyers of registrable purebred dogs than any other problem except sickness. It has long been common practice to explain the inability saying "AKC hasn't sent the papers yet." The standard processing time of any AKC registration item is generally only a few days. If a breeder is doing his paperwork in a regular, careful manner, there is ample time to obtain the necessary "papers" from AKC prior to sale of any puppy. When "papers" are not available at the time of delivery, it is a red-flag warning sign to exercise extreme caution.

Full Registration: Dogs with Full Registration privileges can compete in all AKC events, and their offspring can be registered with the AKC.

Limited Registration: Dogs with Limited Registration privileges are allowed to compete in all AKC events except Conformation (dog shows). Puppies produced by a dog with Limited Registration are not eligible for AKC registration. Owners should know that the Limited Registration status has no bearing on a dog's potential to be an excellent representative of its breed, a wonderful pet, and a standout participant in most AKC events. When it comes to being a great competitor or just a lifelong friend, a dog with Limited Registration has no limits at all.

Registries
Organizations that keep official records on specific subjects. With respect to dogs, there are registries of purebred dogs for tracking lineage (AKC) and health registries for rating certain health conditions (Canine Eye Registration Foundation, Orthopedic Foundation for Animals, etc.).

Sales Contract
When you purchase or adopt a dog, information about the sale or adoption should be in writing. The contract should include, for example, details regarding any fees, spay-neuter agreements, health guarantees, terms of co-ownership, restrictions on breeding, and living arrangements. It should also include instructions on what to do if the dog, despite your best efforts, simply doesn't work out for you or your family. Most responsible breeders will insist that the dog be returned to them.

Sire
The male parent of a dog.

Sire Owner: The person who, according to AKC records, is the registered owner of the sire.

Sire Name: The unique name given to the sire during AKC dog registration.

Sire Registration Number: The unique number assigned to a dog when it is individually registered with AKC.

Socialization
Expose your dog to different people and settings regularly. Take him to the park, to the pet store, or on a walk through town. Praise him for accepting petting from friendly strangers, and for behaving calmly around other dogs. The more your dog learns of the world, the more comfortable he will be in it. The AKC Canine Good Citizen® program (http://www.akc.org/dog-owners/training/canine-good-citizen/) is an excellent resource for socialization and training.

AKC-CGC (Canine Good Citizen): Started in 1989, CGC is a certification program that is designed to reward dogs who have good manners at home and in the community. Many dog owners choose Canine Good Citizen training as the first step in socializing and training their dogs. As you work with your dog to teach the CGC skills, you'll discover the many benefits and joys of training your dog. Training will enhance the bond between you and your dog. Dogs who have a solid obedience education are a joy to live with-they respond well to household routines, have good manners in the presence of people and other dogs, and they fully enjoy the company of the owner who took the time to provide training, intellectual stimulation, and a high quality life.

Spay/Neuter Contract
Some breeders choose to sell some of their puppies on Spay-Neuter Contracts, which require that the dog be spayed or neutered by a certain age.

Spay or Neuter
If you do not plan to show your dog in AKC Conformation events, you should have it spayed or neutered. Spaying or neutering will prevent accidental breedings and may even prolong your dog's life. Spayed or neutered dogs can participate in AKC Obedience, Agility, Tracking and most Performance Events.

Whelping
Act of birthing puppies.

In Whelp: Period when the dam is pregnant.

Whelp Date: Date on which the puppies are born. Also referred to as the litter date of birth.

Title
Conferred on a dog by the AKC as a result of defeating a specified number of dogs in specified competition at a series of AKC-licensed or -member dog shows.

Prefix Titles: Come before the registered name

AFC Amateur Field Trial Champion

Ch. Conformation Champion

Dog must acquire 15 points, including 2 majors won under different Judges and at least one point under a third different Judge.

CT Champion Tracker

Dog must hold all three tracking titles: TD, TDX, VST.

DC Dual Champion

Any dog that has been awarded the title of Champion of Record (Ch.) may be designated as a "Dual Champion," after it has also been awarded the title of Field Champion (FC) or Herding Champion (HC).

FC Field Trial Champion

GDSC Gun Dog Stake Champion

Win 1st place in a stake that has been designated an Open Gun Dog Championship stake.

GFC Grand Field Champion

Field Champion must win three (3) First Lines and/or First Trees in three Final Lines or Final Trees at three (3) different trials with competition. At least one of the three wins must include both Final Line and Final Tree in the same trial on the same date with competition.

GNCH Grand Nite Champion

A dog must earn three first place wins as a Nite Champion in AKC-licensed Nite Hunts.

GWCH Grand Water Race Champion

A Water Race Champion must win three (3) First Lines and/or First Trees in three (3) Final Lines or Final Trees at three different Water Races with competition. At least one of the three wins must include both Final Line and Final Tree in the same event on the same date with competition. If a hound wins both First Line and First Tree in the Final Line or Final Tree in the same race, this only counts as one win towards a Grand Water Race Champion title.

HC Herding Champion

For a title, dog must receive 15 points with at least two 1sts carrying championship points, 1 of which must be for 3 pts. or better.

MACH Master Agility Champion

In order to acquire the title, a dog must achieve a minimum of 750 championship points and 20 double qualifying scores obtained from the Excellent B Standard Agility class and the Excellent B Jumpers With Weaves class.

NAFC National Amateur Field Champion

Win 1st place in a stake that has been designated a National Amateur Championship stake.

NCH Nite Champion

A dog must win 100 AKC points with at least one first place in an AKC-licensed Nite Hunt.

NFC National Field Champion

Win 1st place in a stake that has been designated a National Open Championship stake.

NOC National Obedience Champion

The winner of the annual National Obedience Invitational shall be entitled to be designated National Obedience Champion of _____(year).

NGDC National Gun Dog Champion

Win 1st place in a stake that has been designated a National Open Gun Dog Championship stake

NOGDC National Open Gun Dog Champion

Win 1st place in a stake that has been designated a National Open Gun Dog Championship stake.

OTCH Obedience Trial Champion

Dog must have won:

100 points;

Dog must receive at least one first place Open B, one first place;

Utility and a third first place ribbon in either class.

First places must be awarded by 3 different Judges
Must be at all-breed events One of the required first places may have been won at a Specialty Show.
Open B must have 6 in competition
Utility must have 3 in competition

RGDSC Retrieving Gun Dog Stake Champion

Win 1st place in a stake that has been designated a Retrieving Gun Dog Championship stake.

SGCH Senior Grand Champion

A dog that has been designated a Grand Bench Show Champion must win three Champion Classes with competition.

SGFC Senior Grand Field Champion

A Grand Field Champion must win three (3) First Lines and/or First Trees in three (3) Final Lines or Final Trees at three (3) different trials with competition. At least one of the three wins must include both Final Line and Final Tree in the same trial on the same date with competition.

SGWCH Senior Grand Water Race Champion

A Grand Water Race Champion must win three First Lines and/or First Trees in three Final Lines or Final Trees at three different Water Races with competition. At least one of the three wins must include both Final Line and Final Tree in the same event on the same date with competition. If a hound wins both First Line and First Tree in the Final Line and Final Tree at the same race, this only counts as one win towards a Senior Grand Race Champion title.

SHNCH Senior Grand Nite Champion

A dog must earn three first place wins as a Grand Champion in AKC licensed Nite Hunts. The top four dogs competing in the AKC World Hunt are awarded the title of Senior Grand Nite Champion, if the dog is not already recognized as a SGNC.

TC Triple Champion

Any dog that has been awarded the title of Dual Champion (DC) and the title of Obedience Trial Champion (OTCH) or Tracking Champion (CT) or Agility Champion (MACH) may be designated as a Triple Champion.

VCCH Versatile Companion Champion

Precedes the name of the dog that competes an OTCH, MACH, and CT

WCH Water Race Champion

A dog must win one First Line and one First Tree in Finals at least once on the same date and in the same Water Race with competition and have a total of 200 Championship points.

Suffix Titles: Come after the registered name

AJP Excellent Agility Jumpers with Weaves "A" Preferred

For a title, dog must earn 3 qualifying scores in Excellent A Jumpers With Weaves Preferred class under at least 2 different Judges.

AX Agility Excellent

For a title, dog must earn 3 qualifying scores in Excellent A Agility class under at least 2 different Judges.

AXJ Agility Excellent Jumper

For a title, dog must earn 3 qualifying scores in Excellent A Jumpers With Weaves class under at least 2 different Judges.

AXP Agility Excellent "A" Preferred

For a title, dog must earn 3 qualifying scores in Agility Excellent "A" Preferred Class under at least 2 different Judges.

CD Companion Dog

The letters CD may be added after a dog's name when it has been certified by 3 different Judges to have received qualifying scores in Novice classes at 3 licensed or member obedience trials

CDX Companion Dog Excellent

The letters CDX may be added after the name of each dog that has been certified by 3 different Judges to have received qualifying scores in Open classes at 3 licensed or member obedience trials.

HI Herding Intermediate

Three qualifying scores in the Intermediate classes from 3 different Judges at 3 different trials

HIAdsc Herding Intermediate Course A (ducks, sheep, cattle)

Three qualifying scores in the Intermediate Course A classes using Ducks (HIAd), Sheep (HIAs) or Cattle (HIAc) from 3 different Judges at 3 different trials

HIBdsc Herding Intermediate Course B (ducks, sheep, cattle)

Three qualifying scores in the Intermediate Course B classes using Ducks (HIBd), Sheep (HIBs) or Cattle (HIBc) from 3 different Judges at 3 different trials

HICs Herding Intermediate Course C (sheep)

Three qualifying scores in the Intermediate Course C classes using Sheep (HICs) from 3 different Judges at 3 different trials

HS Herding Started

Three qualifying scores in the Started classes 3 different Judges at 3 different trials

HSAdsc Herding Started Course A (ducks, sheep, cattle)

Three qualifying scores in the Started Course A classes using Ducks (HSAd), Sheep (HSAs) or Cattle (HSAc) from 3 different Judges at 3 different trials

HSBdsc Herding Started Course B (ducks, sheep, cattle)

Three qualifying scores in the Started Course B classes using Ducks (HSBd), Sheep (HSBs) or Cattle (HSBc) from 3 different Judges at 3 different trials

HSCs Herding Started Course C (sheep)

Three qualifying scores in the Started Course C classes using Sheep (HSCs) from 3 different Judges at 3 different trials

HT Herding Tested

For a title, a dog must qualify twice under 2 different Judges. Dog may qualify twice in one day at the same event provided he/she is judged by different Judges.

HX Herding Excellent

Three qualifying scores in the Advanced classes from 3 different Judges at 3 different trials

HXAdsc Herding Advanced Course A (ducks, sheep, cattle)

Three qualifying scores in the Advanced Course A classes using Ducks (HXAd), Sheep (HXAs) or Cattle (HXAc) from 3 different Judges at 3 different trials

HXBdsc Herding Advanced Course B (ducks, sheep, cattle)

Three qualifying scores in the Advanced Course B classes using Ducks (HXBd), Sheep (HXBs) or Cattle (HXBc) from 3 different Judges at 3 different trials

HXCs Herding Advanced Course C (sheep)

Three qualifying scores in the Advanced Course C classes using Sheep (HIAs) from 3 different Judges at 3 different trials

JC Junior Courser

A hound running alone shall receive certification from a Judge on one date, and a second certification from a different Judge at a later date, stating that the hound completed a 600-yard course with a minimum of four (4) turns. The hound must complete the course with enthusiasm and without interruption. The two runs can be on the same date at or in conjunction with a National Breed Specialty.

JE Junior Earthdog

A dog must have a record of having qualified in the Junior Earthdog test in two (2) AKC licensed or member club tests under two different Judges.

JH Junior Hunter

For a title, dog must receive qualifying scores at 4 licensed or member tests.

LCX Lure Courser Excellent

Any dog that has been awarded the title of Field Champion and has earned 45 additional championship points will be awarded the suffix title of Lure Courser Excellent (LCX). The title of Lure Courser Excellent is a cumulative title, each time the dog accrues an additional 45 championship points it would be eligible to receive the next title level. (LCX II, LCX III, LCX IV, etc.)

MC Master Courser

The Master Courser title will be awarded to hounds that have acquired the Senior Courser title and that have earned an additional twenty-five (25) qualifying scores (with competition) in either the Open, Open Veteran or Specials stake at AKC licensed or member club lure coursing trials.

ME Master Earthdog

A dog must have a record of having qualified in the Master Earthdog test at four (4) AKC licensed or member club hunting tests under two different Judges.

MH Master Hunter

For a title, a dog must receive qualifying scores at 6 licensed or member tests. If the dog has already received a SH, the dog need only qualify 5 times. German Wirehaired Pointers must pass a Water Test at a licensed or member field trial or hunting test held by a Specialty Club for German Wirehaired Pointers or Weimaraners.

MJP Master Excellent Jumpers with Weaves "B" Preferred

For a title, dog must earn 10 qualifying scores in Excellent B Jumpers With Weaves Preferred Agility class under at least 2 different Judges. Trial at which AX was earned does not count toward the 10.

MX Master Agility Excellent

For a title, dog must earn 10 qualifying scores in Excellent B Agility class under at least 2 different Judges. Trial at which AX was earned does not count toward the 10.

MXJ Master Excellent Jumpers with Weaves

For a title, dog must earn 10 qualifying scores in Excellent B Jumpers With Weaves Agility class under at least 2 different Judges. Trial at which AX was earned does not count toward the 10.

MXP Master Agility Excellent "B" Preferred

For a title, dog must earn 10 qualifying scores in Excellent Agility Preferred "B" class under at least 2 different Judges. Trial at which AXP was earned does not count toward the 10.

NA Novice Agility

For a title, dog must earn 3 qualifying scores in Novice A and/or B Agility class under at least 2 different Judges.

NAJ Novice Agility Jumper

For a title, dog must earn 3 qualifying scores in Novice A and/or B Jumpers With Weaves class under at least 2 different Judges.

NAP Novice Agility Preferred

For a title, dog must earn 3 qualifying scores in Novice Agility Preferred A and/or B Agility class under at least 2 different Judges.

NJP Novice Jumpers with Weaves Preferred

For a title, dog must earn 3 qualifying scores in Novice A and/or B Jumpers With Weaves Preferred class under at least 2 different Judges.

OA Open Agility

For a title, dog must earn 3 qualifying scores in Open Agility class under at least 2 different Judges.

OAJ Open Agility Jumper

For a title, dog must earn 3 qualifying scores in Open Jumpers With Weaves class under at least 2 different Judges.

OAP Open Agility Preferred

For a title, dog must earn 3 qualifying scores in Open Agility Preferred class under at least 2 different Judges.

OJP Open Jumpers with Weaves Preferred

For a title, dog must earn 3 qualifying scores in Open Jumpers With Weaves Preferred class under at least 2 different Judges.

PT Pre-Trial Tested

The American Kennel Club will issue a Pre-Trial Tested certificate to an eligible dog, and will permit the use of the letters PT after the name of a dog that has been certified by two different Judges to have qualified by passing two licensed or member club Pre-Trial tests. Dog may qualify twice in one day at the same event provided he/she is judged by different Judges.

SC Senior Courser

1) Must be eligible to enter the open stake. That requires the dog to have obtained at least one of the following: AKC Junior Courser title or American Kennel Club Field Champion title. 2) The hound must run with at least one other hound. 3) Must receive qualifying scores at four (4) AKC-licensed or member trials, under two different Judges or judging panels.

SE Senior Earthdog

A dog must have a record of having qualified in the Senior Earthdog test at three (3) AKC licensed or member club tests under two different Judges.

SH Senior Hunter

For a title, a dog must receive qualifying scores at 5 licensed or member tests. If the dog has already received a JH, the dog need only qualify 4 times. German Wirehaired Pointers must pass a Water Test at a licensed or member field trial or hunting test held by a Specialty Club for German Wirehaired Pointers or Weimaraners.

TD Tracking Dog

Dog has been certified by two Judges to have passed a licensed or member club TD test.

TDX Tracking Dog Excellent

Dog has been certified by two Judges to have passed a licensed or member club TDX test.

UD Utility Dog

The American Kennel Club will issue a Utility Dog certificate for each registered dog, that has been certified by three obedience trial Judges as having received qualifying Utility scores at three licensed or member obedience trials.

UDX Utility Dog Excellent

To earn a Utility Dog Excellent title, the dog must have received qualifying scores in both Open B and Utility B at 10 separate licensed or member obedience trials.

VCD1 Versatile Companion Dog 1

Must complete CD, NA, NAJ, TD or CD, NAP, NJP, TD

VCD2 Versatile Companion Dog 2

Must complete CDX, OA, OAJ, TD or CDX, OAP, OJP, TD

VCD3 Versatile Companion Dog 3

Must Complete UD, AX, AXJ, TDX or UD, AXP, AJP, TDX

VDC4 Versatile Companion Dog 4

Must complete UDX, MX, MXJ, VST or UDX, MXP, MJP, VST

VST Variable Surface Tracking

Dog has been certified by both Judges to have passed a licensed or member club Variable Surface Tracking test.